Ancient Zionism: The Biblical Origins of the National Idea
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Some writers have claimed that this was done in order to get more Muslim votes in India where Muslims numbered over 30 million at the time. An international opinion survey has shown that India is the most pro-Israel country in the world. Zionism is opposed by a wide variety of organizations and individuals.
Reasons for opposing Zionism are varied, and they include: the perception that land confiscations are unfair; expulsions of Palestinians; violence against Palestinians; and alleged racism. Arab states in particular strongly oppose Zionism, which they believe is responsible for the Palestinian exodus. The preamble of the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights , which has been ratified by 53 African countries as of [update] , includes an undertaking to eliminate Zionism together with other practices including colonialism , neo-colonialism , apartheid , "aggressive foreign military bases" and all forms of discrimination.
Zionism was also opposed for other reasons by some Jews even before the establishment of the state of Israel because "Zionism constitutes a danger, both spiritual and physical, to the existence of our people". Ibn Saud pointed out that it was Germany who had committed crimes against the Jews and so Germany should be punished. Palestinian Arabs had done no harm to European Jews and did not deserve to be punished by losing their land. Roosevelt on return to the US concluded that Israel "could only be established and maintained by force.
The initial response of the Catholic Church seemed to be one of strong opposition to Zionism. Nonetheless, Theodore Herzl travelled to Rome in late January , after the sixth Zionist Congress August and six months before his death, looking for some kind of support.
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According to Herzl's private diary notes, the Cardinal's interpretation of the history of Israel was the same as that of the Catholic Church, but he also asked for the conversion of the Jews to Catholicism. Three days later, Herzl met Pope Pius X , who replied to his request of support for a Jewish return to Israel in the same terms, saying that "we are unable to favor this movement. We cannot prevent the Jews from going to Jerusalem, but we could never sanction it The Jews have not recognized our Lord, therefore we cannot recognize the Jewish people.
Catholic anti-Semitism - while never going beyond the moral law - adopts all necessary means to emancipate the Christian people from the abuse they suffer from their sworn enemy". Zionism has been characterized as colonialism, and Zionism has been criticized for promoting unfair confiscation of land, involving the expulsion of, and causing violence towards, the Palestinians. Others, such as Shlomo Avineri and Mitchell Bard , view Zionism not as a colonialist movement, but as a national movement that is contending with the Palestinian one.
Noam Chomsky , John P.
Zionism - HISTORY
Quigly, Nur Masalha , and Cheryl Rubenberg have criticized Zionism, saying that it unfairly confiscates land and expels Palestinians. Isaac Deutscher has called Israelis the 'Prussians of the Middle East', who have achieved a 'totsieg', a 'victorious rush into the grave' as a result of dispossessing 1. Israel had become the 'last remaining colonial power' of the twentieth century.
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Edward Said and Michael Prior claim that the notion of expelling the Palestinians was an early component of Zionism, citing Herzl's diary from which states "we shall endeavour to expel the poor population across the border unnoticed—the process of expropriation and the removal of the poor must be carried out discreetly and circumspectly. This is another area in which we shall set the entire world a wonderful example … Should there be many such immovable owners in individual areas [who would not sell their property to us], we shall simply leave them there and develop our commerce in the direction of other areas which belong to us.
Ilan Pappe argued that Zionism results in ethnic cleansing. I know that this term is completely negative in the discourse of the 21st century, but when the choice is between ethnic cleansing and genocide—the annihilation of your people—I prefer ethnic cleansing. In , Mahatma Gandhi rejected Zionism, saying that the establishment of a Jewish national home in Palestine is a religious act and therefore must not be performed by force, comparing it to the Partition of India into Hindu and Muslim countries.
He wrote, "Palestine belongs to the Arabs in the same sense that England belongs to the English or France to the French. It is wrong and inhuman to impose the Jews on the Arabs Surely it would be a crime against humanity to reduce the proud Arabs so that Palestine can be restored to the Jews partly or wholly as their national home They can settle in Palestine only by the goodwill of the Arabs. They should seek to convert the Arab heart. If the Arabs have a claim to Palestine, the Jews have a prior claim". David Ben-Gurion stated that "There will be no discrimination among citizens of the Jewish state on the basis of race, religion, sex, or class.
However, critics of Zionism consider it a colonialist  or racist  movement.
According to historian Avi Shlaim , throughout its history up to present day, Zionism "is replete with manifestations of deep hostility and contempt towards the indigenous population. He cites the example of Ahad Ha'am, who after visiting Palestine in , published a series of articles criticizing the aggressive behaviour and political ethnocentrism of Zionist settlers. Ha'am wrote that the Zionists "behave towards the Arabs with hostility and cruelty, trespass unjustly upon their boundaries, beat them shamefully without reason and even brag about it, and nobody stands to check this contemptible and dangerous tendency" and that they believed that "the only language that the Arabs understand is that of force.
In December , the UN passed a series of resolutions condemning South Africa and included a reference to an "unholy alliance between Portuguese colonialism , Apartheid and Zionism. In the UN General Assembly passed Resolution , which said "Zionism is a form of racism and racial discrimination".
According to the resolution, "any doctrine of racial differentiation of superiority is scientifically false, morally condemnable, socially unjust, and dangerous. Resolution was pioneered by the Soviet Union and passed with numerical support from Arab and African states amidst accusations that Israel was supportive of the apartheid regime in South Africa. The United States The overwhelmingly clear truth is that it is not.
Ancient Zionism: The Biblical Origins of the National Idea
Arab countries sought to associate Zionism with racism in connection with a UN conference on racism , which took place in Durban , South Africa,  which caused the United States and Israel to walk away from the conference as a response. The final text of the conference did not connect Zionism with racism. A human rights forum arranged in connection with the conference, on the other hand, did equate Zionism with racism and censured Israel for what it called "racist crimes, including acts of genocide and ethnic cleansing". Supporters of Zionism, such as Chaim Herzog , argue that the movement is non-discriminatory and contains no racist aspects.
Many Haredi Orthodox organizations oppose Zionism; they view Zionism as a secular movement.
They reject nationalism as a doctrine and consider Judaism to be first and foremost a religion that is not dependent on a state. However, some Haredi movements such as Shas since do openly affiliate with the Zionist movement. Haredi rabbis do not consider Israel to be a halachic Jewish state because it has secular government. But they take responsibility for ensuring that Jews maintain religious ideals and, since most Israeli citizens are Jews, they pursue this agenda within Israel.
Others reject any possibility of a Jewish state, since according to them a Jewish state is completely forbidden by Jewish religious law. In their view a Jewish state is considered an oxymoron. Two Haredi parties run candidates in Israeli elections. They are sometimes associated with views that could be regarded as nationalist or Zionist. They prefer coalitions with more nationalist Zionist parties, probably because these are more interested in enhancing the Jewish nature of the Israeli state.
The Sephardi-Orthodox party Shas rejected association with the Zionist movement; however, in it joined the World Zionist Organization. Its voters generally identify as Zionist, and Knesset members frequently pursue what others might consider a Zionist agenda.
Shas has supported territorial compromise with the Arabs and Palestinians, but it generally opposes compromise over Jewish holy sites. It has always avoided association with the Zionist movement and usually avoids voting on or discussing issues related to peace, because its members do not serve in the army. The party works to ensure that Israel and Israeli law are in tune with the halacha, on issues such as Shabbat rest.
The rabbinical leaders of the so-called Litvishe world in current and past generations, such as Rabbi Elazar Menachem Shach and Rabbi Avigdor Miller , are strongly opposed to all forms of Zionism, religious and secular. But they allow members to participate in Israeli political life, including both passive and active participation in elections. Many other Hasidic groups in Jerusalem, most famously the Satmar Hasidim, as well as the larger movement they are part of, the Edah HaChareidis , are strongly anti-Zionist.
One of the best known Hasidic opponents of all forms of modern political Zionism was Hungarian rebbe and Talmudic scholar Joel Teitelbaum. In his view, the current State of Israel is contrariwise to Judaism, because it was founded by people who included some anti-religious personalities, and were in apparent violation of the traditional notion that Jews should wait for the Jewish Messiah. Teitelbaum referred to core citations from classical Judaic sources in his arguments against modern Zionism; specifically a passage in the Talmud, in which Rabbi Yosi b'Rebbi Hanina explains Kesubos a that the Lord imposed " Three Oaths " on the nation of Israel: a Israel should not return to the Land together, by force; b Israel should not rebel against the other nations; and c The nations should not subjugate Israel too harshly.
According to Teitelbaum, the second oath is relevant concerning the subsequent wars fought between Israel and Arab nations. They number in the tens of thousands in Jerusalem, and hundreds of thousands worldwide. The Neturei Karta , an Orthodox Haredi religious movement, strongly oppose Zionism, considering Israel a "racist regime". The Chabad-Lubavitch Hasidic movement traditionally did not identify as Zionist, but has adopted a Zionist agenda since the late 20th century, opposing any territorial compromise in Israel. Some critics of anti-Zionism have argued that opposition to Zionism can be hard to distinguish from antisemitism,      and that criticism of Israel may be used as an excuse to express viewpoints that might otherwise be considered antisemitic.
To avoid accusations of antisemitism, the Palestine Liberation Organization has historically avoided using the word "Jewish" in favor of using "Zionist," though PLO officials have sometimes slipped. Some antisemites have alleged that Zionism was, or is, part of a Jewish plot to take control of the world.
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The protocols are fictional minutes of an imaginary meeting by Jewish leaders of this plot. Analysis and proof of their fraudulent origin goes as far back as They are referred to in the Hamas charter. There are examples of anti-Zionists using accusations, slanders, imagery and tactics previously associated with antisemites.
On the other hand, anti-Zionist writers such as Noam Chomsky , Norman Finkelstein , Michael Marder , and Tariq Ali have argued that the characterization of anti-Zionism as antisemitic is inaccurate, that it sometimes obscures legitimate criticism of Israel 's policies and actions, and that it is sometimes used as a political ploy in order to stifle legitimate criticism of Israel. Zionist success in winning British support for the formation of a Jewish National Home in Palestine helped inspire the Jamaican Black nationalist Marcus Garvey to form a movement dedicated to returning Americans of African origin to Africa.
During a speech in Harlem in , Garvey stated: "other races were engaged in seeing their cause through—the Jews through their Zionist movement and the Irish through their Irish movement—and I decided that, cost what it might, I would make this a favorable time to see the Negro's interest through. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
This article is about Zionism as a movement, not the History of Israel. For other uses, see Zion disambiguation. Movement that supports the creation of a Jewish homeland. Main article: Types of Zionism. The Maccabeans will rise again. Let me repeat once more my opening words: The Jews who wish for a State will have it. We shall live at last as free men on our own soil, and die peacefully in our own homes. The world will be freed by our liberty, enriched by our wealth, magnified by our greatness. And whatever we attempt there to accomplish for our own welfare, will react powerfully and beneficially for the good of humanity.
See also: Yiddish , Ladino language , and Hebraization of surnames. Main articles: Jewish territorialism and Proposals for a Jewish state.click
This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Main article: Labor Zionism.
Main article: General Zionists. Main article: Revisionist Zionism.